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Sleep Apnea occurs when you regularly stop breathing for 10 seconds or longer during sleep. It can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe, based on the number of times per hour you stop breathing (apnea) or have slowed breathing (hypopnea). Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is caused by a blockage (obstruction) in the nose, mouth, or throat from a structural problem such as an enlarged tongue or tonsils. Other factors, such as smoking or obesity, contribute to OSA.

SleepApnea.org - National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke - WebMD.com - Healthline.com


Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and intermittent, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day. These sudden sleep attacks may occur during any type of activity at any time.

SleepFoundation.org - National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke - Mayo Clinic - WebMD.com - Healthline.com


Insomnia is a common problem affecting almost everyone at one time or another. A person with insomnia may have difficulty falling or staying asleep, wake up frequently during the night, or wake up earlier than desired, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, poor memory, loss of productivity, and decreased enjoyment of family and social life. Most people have an occasional restless night. For some people, however, poor-quality sleep is a recurring or even a lifelong problem.

SleepFoundation.org - Healthline.com


A person with Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) experiences unpleasant sensations in the legs described as creeping, crawling, tingling, pulling or pain, that usually occur in the calf area but may be felt anywhere from the thigh to the ankle, and even in the arms. Usually, moving the legs, walking, rubbing or massaging the legs, or doing knee bends brings relief, at least briefly.

Many people with RLS also have a disorder called periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), involuntary jerking or bending leg movements during sleep. Some people may experience hundreds of such movements per night. People who have RLS and PLMS have trouble both falling asleep and staying asleep.

SleepFoundation.org - National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke - Mayo Clinic - WebMD.com - Healthline.com


Snoring occurs when the flow of air from the mouth or nose to the lungs is disturbed during sleep, usually by a blockage or narrowing in the nose, mouth, or throat. This causes the tissues of the airway to vibrate and knock against the back of the throat, resulting in a noise that can be soft, loud, raspy, harsh, hoarse, or fluttering.

In the past, snoring was often considered a nuisance. However, snoring may progress to upper respiratory resistance syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea.

WebMD.com - Healthline.com